Tolerance - what is it? Types of tolerance
Tolerance includes such human qualities as:
- Compassion and tolerance;
- Forgiveness and mercy;
- The perception of the neighbor with all its flaws;
- Respect for the rights and freedoms of people;
- Desire to cooperate;
- Maintaining a spirit of partnership and parity among people.
In 1995, the UNESCO Declaration of Principles of Tolerance was adopted.
According to this document, tolerance is:
- Lack of aggression;
- Philosophical perception of the world and the ability to philosophically assess life positions and manifestations of the nature of other people.
Depending on the sphere of manifestation, tolerance is divided into the following categories:
- Administrative, etc.
Types and types of tolerance in modern society
The concept of tolerance is not just a definition in Wikipedia. There are different definitions, as well as divisions of tolerance into species, types, subspecies and subtypes.Psychologists divide tolerance into four types, which are based on interpersonal communication of people:
- Natural (natural).This kind of tolerance is characterized by the fact that the child cannot oppose his own “I” to the surrounding world. For this, he has too little experience. Children's consciousness is driven by kindness, forgiveness, trust. It is these qualities that allow the little man to adapt to the conditions of existence. However, these character traits make the child suppress the desires and manifestations of the will.
People with different skin color may be tolerant to each other.
- Moral tolerance.This kind of tolerance is characteristic of self-sufficient and wise people who know how to restrain emotions through the mechanisms of psychological defense of the body. The main manifestation of this attitude is considered to be tolerance towards others. Inside, he can be agitated by passions of indignation and accumulate negative energy, but outwardly the person is extremely calm.
- Moral Tolerance.Many people will be surprised that two items with subheadings-synonyms are running in a row. But there is a significant difference between moral and moral tolerance. Moral tolerance is different in that it determines the degree of trust in a person. This kind is typical for people who try to accept thoughts, values, stereotypes, life principles of another person. It is easy for such people to tolerate conflict situations and resist under the pressure of stress.
- Tolerance is ethnic.It causes long-suffering and the absence of condemnation to alien culture, customs and way of life.
A person endowed with ethnic tolerance can live for a long time in an environment unaccustomed, and sometimes even unpleasant to him, of an alien culture and traditions.
The maintypes of tolerance consist of four subspecies:
- The attitude of the person to the situation and the people taking part in it. Subdividedsituational toleranceto the following levels:
- Low levelCharacteristic for a negative attitude of man to the world and the surrounding reality ("they irritate me");
- Onaverage levelthe person expresses tolerance to the interlocutors ("I like to communicate with them, and I understand them perfectly");
- Highest levelcharacterized by the full acceptance of man by man (“I am comfortable and well with them”).
- The position of a person relative to other people, based on political, ethnic and national characteristics. This kind of tolerance is calledtypological.
- Another type of tolerance -professional.This is the reaction of people to the environment in which they are forced to stay a large amount of time - employees, co-workers, colleagues.
- CollectiveTolerance (general) consists of the symptoms that a person manifests as a result of the previous three observations. Their systematization gives an overall picture of the level of tolerance of the individual.
Many people are intolerant of men and women with tattoos
Examples of Tolerance from the Life
The most obvious manifestations of tolerance from life are, as a rule, connected with religion: one can meet a Christian who talks with a Muslim, and they both tolerate each other, listen to each other's position and opinion. Also an example of tolerance can serve as a conversation of people of different political views. The important thing is thatpeople do not try to impose their point of view, and have the power to recognize that the other person may not share your political beliefs.
Often, people are not tolerant of the appearance of people who dress or look differently than you. For example, you don’t like tattoos and you should see a girl with a tattoo, as the attitude towards her immediately deteriorates, or you don’t want to communicate with her at all.
Absolutely not tolerant will express his position, as the only true, in every way hint that the person is not right, that all his arguments seem to you stupid or insignificant. In this situation, you can safely call yourself an intolerant personality.
Tolerance and Intolerance
In an effort to become tolerant, a person does not think about the fact that his manifestations of tolerance sometimes have the character of violence against themselves. That is, he does not have moral tolerance, which is due to acceptance and forgiveness.This process occurs at the level of moral tolerance, which suppresses the internal rejection of any processes.
Tolerance and intolerance are manifested in all spheres of human relationships: professional, interethnic, interfaith and others.
How to understand that a person is tolerant? As a rule, the following signs of tolerance and tolerant personality are distinguished:
- Humor. The ability to laugh at their own shortcomings is the main difference between a tolerant person. He adequately reacts to criticism and jokes in his address.
A tolerant person aims at self-improvement and the implementation of his plans.
He is curious, open with people and selflessly comes at the very first call for help. An intolerant individual does not know how to empathize and does not show compassion for people. He can not self-determine, and does not strive for self-improvement.
- Self esteem. Tolerance is the ability of a person to adequately assess himself and others. He clearly knows his own shortcomings and seeks to eradicate them. Tolerance implies the harmony of people with the world and within themselves.Intolerant people used to blame others for their troubles. He puts all the blame on those around him, on circumstances. At the same time, intolerant people extol their own achievements and stick out dignities, which, maybe, does not exist at all.
- Security. With all the problems of modern reality (rampant crime, terrorism, etc.), a tolerant person feels protected in the society. However, intollerant people in everything that happens around see a real threat to their own safety.
- A responsibility. Tolerant people are not afraid of responsibility. In everything that happens around, they are looking for true causes and meaning. They are not difficult to take on certain obligations, and bear the burden of responsibility for their misdeeds and others.
Conchita Wurst, he's Thomas Neuwirth, winner of Eurovision 2014 in Copenhagen
- Democracy. Tolerant people will never convince you of their own right. They will listen to your point of view, but will remain with theirs. Intolerant people dictators in their psychological mood.They need to know that everyone around them obeys their concepts and aspirations.
Tolerance in the modern world
Tolerance for our state and its citizens is something new that has come to us since the times of “Perestroika” and the formation of a new state. In the Soviet Union, tolerance was considered, if not a manifestation of weakness, then a betrayal of political views promoted by the state. In communist society, differences of opinion, religious beliefs, and preferences were not allowed. The perverse concept of tolerance was recognized only in the call for equality and fraternity of all peoples and segments of society. That, however, was a solid propaganda, and did not carry a real basis.
At the present time, people in our country and around the world are increasingly asking themselves the question: “How to become a tolerant person?” Andmany confuse tolerance with forgiveness in Christianity. However, this concept is far from the call of Christianity to the patient and stoic desire to "carry your cross" or "turn your cheek for another strike." Orthodox fathers categorically deny tolerance as a science, and in every possible way interfere with its teaching in schools and universities.They believe that the adoption and understanding of any point of view destroys the moral principles of man, who were brought up in him since childhood.
We can list several examples of the double interpretation of manifestations of tolerance in society:
- The youth. Consider a vivid example of the manifestation of the denial of tolerance - skinhead groupings. They believe that tolerance for a foreign culture, beliefs and attitudes leads to the oppression of the Slavic race. How to explain to a child what tolerance is? By example, first of all. Do not be afraid to discuss acute topics in the family regarding any kind of tolerance. Tolerance for children, especially small ones, can be a difficult concept, but over the years, the grains you sow will make themselves known, and your child will become a truly tolerant person.
- A family. In some countries, where a tolerant attitude towards people has been propagated for a long time, there are some excesses in terms. For example, in England it is forbidden to use the words “husband” and “wife” in document circulation. Thus, the authorities of the state try not to offend the feelings of sexual minorities entering into marriage.However, this is also not the limit, in future it is planned to ban the words "mother" and "father", with the same purpose. European society condemns the denial of Russians in relation to same-sex partners who want to adopt children.
Tolerance is manifested in the adoption of same-sex relationships
- Policy. In political life, there is a very fine line between tolerance and servility. Politicians receive appropriate training and have the skills to help them manipulate the public and the opinions of most people. Take the same ban on teenage homosexuality, adopted at the legislative level in Russia. In tolerant Europe, this caused a storm of condemnation and accusations of intolerance of the Russian rulers.
Today we see that the Russian public is outraged by the manifestation of fascism and extremism on the territory of the former Russian state - Ukraine.
From all of the above, we can draw the following conclusions:
- Manifestations of tolerance to non-traditional views on life and minority concepts should be justified by logic and common sense;
- Consider the adoption of certain positions must be guidedlaws and traditions adopted in society;
- It is necessary to clearly know and be aware of the limits of tolerance;
- Tolerance should not grow into permissiveness and trampling on true values.
It is necessary to respectfully accept and understand the meaning of life, the positions and aspirations of other people, which should correspond to such concepts as “morality”, “morality” and “democracy”. A tolerant person is not one who is endowed with any one positive quality, it is an individual possessing all of them in full. He will never go to a conflict, even if it is justified by certain circumstances, it cannot be brought to condemnation or a sharp rejection of others' ideals and aspirations. buttruly tolerant people must have high moral standards. In order for our society to become tolerant, it is necessary to nurture and instill tolerance among young people, based on standards of morality and ethics.
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