What are mineral substances necessary for a dog?
For the normal course of physiological processes in the body of growing dogs and for the growth of muscle and, especially, bone tissue, minerals are necessary for the dog. Bone tissue is 26% composed of minerals, mainly calcium and phosphorus. In bone ash, about 36% is calcium and 17% is phosphorus. As the animal develops, the proportion of ash in the skeleton increases by almost 1.5 times. In the first weeks of life, minerals are most fully used by the body from milk and some other feeds. With age, their absorption rapidly decreases from 99% to 41% in adult dogs and to 22% in old ones. The deposition of minerals in the body also decreases.
The need of a puppy and a young dog for minerals depends on its weight, growth rate, as well as the composition of the diet, the quality of feed and a number of other factors. Puppies and young dogs with a greater body weight and intensively growing have a greater need for these substances.With abundant mineral nutrition, bone growth and mineralization is accelerated. At the same time, the correct ratio in the diet of calcium and phosphorus has a certain value. At the beginning of growth, it is important that it does not go beyond the limits of 1.5-2: 1, at the end, when the role of phosphorus increases, it was close to 1.2-1: 1 (compliance with the lower bounds of the norms of the need for both ).
The ratio of calcium and phosphorus in the diet of dogs must be respected depending on the breed and age in this ratio:
- puppies from three to eight weeks old - 1.35: 1;
- puppies and young dogs of small and medium breeds (weight of adult dogs up to 35 kg) from eight weeks to 8-9 months for small breeds, and up to 12-14 months for medium breeds - 1.35: 1;
- puppies of large breeds (weight over 35 kg) both healthy and for puppies of breeds that are predisposed to problems in the development of the musculoskeletal system in the process of growth 1.39: 1.
In the assimilation of mineral substances by the body, ash is also important. Alkaline elements in it should prevail over acidic ones.
It is possible to establish the need of puppies and young dogs for mineral substances in balance experiments, thus determining the deposition of mineral substances in the body during different periods of growth.The data obtained in this case are supplemented by blood tests for the content of the same mineral substances, mainly calcium and phosphorus. The rapid growth of puppies and young dogs with a normal blood composition indicates a proper mineral metabolism.
Per 1 kg of body weight, pups and young dogs require an average of 528 mg of calcium and 440 mg of phosphorus per day. The puppy and the young dog (in the calculation of 1 kg of increase in live weight) are deposited in about 1.6-2.11 g of calcium and 1.32-1.76 g of phosphorus, i.e. is utilized in the body only 30-40% of the intake when calculating the gain of 1 kg of live weight for 10 days.
In case of a change in the daily increment upwards or downwards, the actual calculation is made.
The need of puppies and young dogs for minerals (calcium and phosphorus) should, first of all, be covered with natural feeds and only if they are deficient, mineral supplements are introduced into the rations.
Nutrition puppies and young dogs should be complete and trace elements - copper, iron, iodine, cobalt, etc. In the relevant standards for puppies and young dogs take into account their breed characteristics and the content of trace elements in feed and water.Growing dogs have an increased need for vitamins. This is explained by the fact that they need vitamins for newly formed cells and tissues, and the consumption of vitamins due to increased metabolism increases, while the ability of the young organism to synthesize is not yet developed. The need for puppies and young dogs for vitamins depends on their age, growth rate, diet composition, and other factors. Most vitamins per unit weight are required for puppies and young dogs at an early age.
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