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What are organelles?

In school, biology classes study in detail the structure of the cell. Each living cell has a certain structure, each of its components performs a specific function to maintain the vital activity of the cell. These constituent cells are called organoids (in other words, organelles).

Organoids are cell organs that are responsible for the transport of substances, synthesis, division, storage of genetic information, movement, etc.

The structure of eukaryotic organoids includes:

  • membrane,
  • cytoplasm,
  • chromosomes,
  • Golgi apparatus,
  • mitochondria,
  • endoplasmic reticulum,
  • lysosomes
  • vacuoles,
  • core,
  • ribosomes,
  • microfilaments
  • microtubules.

Unlike eukaryotes, prokaryotes are not so rich in organoids. The organelles of prokaryotes include the membrane and ribosomes.

There are also differences between animal and plant cells. In addition to the main composition, the plant cell contains plastids, the animal cell contains microfibrils and centrioles.

Let's take a closer look at what organoids are, using the example of eukaryotes.

Plasma membrane

It is a small film consisting of proteins and lipids. The membrane protects the cell, and it also performs the transport function - the transfer of water, nutrients into the cell, and excretory - through it, unnecessary substances are removed from the cell.


It is a semi-liquid medium inside the cell, it binds the nucleus and organelles, and also participates in the vital processes of the cell.


Microfilaments are threads made up of actin protein. Present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotes. They carry out several functions, including participation in the change in cell shape, endomitosis, movement of vesicles (small organelles that store or transport nutrients), etc.


These are intracellular protein structures that resemble cylinders in shape. They participate in various cell processes - cytokinesis, mitosis, vesicle transport.

Endoplasmic reticulum

A network consisting of several channels in the cytoplasm. Participates in the transport of substances and the synthesis of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Also on it or in the cytoplasm are located the ribosomes, which are composed of protein and RNA.Ribosomes are involved in the process of protein synthesis.


Organoids inside the cell, protected from the cytoplasm by two membranes. They oxidize organic matter and synthesize ATP molecules.


Plastids (chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leukoplasts) are important components of plant cells. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which converts energy and uses it to synthesize organic matter from water and carbon dioxide.

Golgi Apparatus

The Golgi complex is a cavity in which proteins, carbohydrates and fats accumulate. The Golgi apparatus is involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates and fats.


They contain enzymes that accelerate the breakdown of complex molecules into simple: proteins - into amino acids, complex carbohydrates - into simple, lipids - into glycerol and fatty acids. Also, lysosomes are involved in the destruction of cells and dead parts of the cell.


They are cavities filled with juice. Vacuoles accumulate nutrients and regulate the amount of water.


This is the main component of the cell. Outside, it is covered with two membranes that have pores through which various substances come to the core and are removed from it. The nucleus is involved in the synthesis of DNA, i-RNA and p-RNA.In the nucleus are chromosomes containing hereditary information about the body. Each chromosome consists of DNA and proteins.

Of course, if you delve into the study of the issue of cell organelles, then you will find many more nuances. Here is information in general.


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