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What is pathology?

Igor Frolov
Igor Frolov
January 27, 2015
What is pathology?

Sometimes in the people around us we can find some kind of deviation from the norm, which we just cannot find the right name for. Most often, if we are not talking about any particular disease, but only about partial dysfunction or deviation from the norm, it makes sense to talk about the development of pathology. In this article we will try to understand what pathology is and what should be referred to this term.


Pathology is a painful deviation in the functioning of the body, which leads to disruption of the development process and adversely affects health.

The term pathology can refer to particular cases in medical practice and diagnostics, to the science that studies and treat painful conditions, and in a narrower sense, it is applicable in the framework of modern science - medical (or general) pathology.

Pathology as a phenomenon of deviation from the generally accepted norms in the body of a single individual can affect any organs and parts of the human body.In this case, pathologies are divided into congenital, which appear in a child before birth, under the influence of external factors during pregnancy or by inheritance, as well as acquired ones, which have been formed in the human body for years.

Pathology in the sciences

Medical pathology is a science that studies the nature and causes of diseases and certain pathological processes in humans and animals. Gradually, separate branches emerged from medical pathology, each of which studied the disease from a certain point of view.

Anatomical pathology is a medical discipline that surgically studies pathological processes in body tissues, organs and organ systems. One of the most effective methods for studying pathological processes is biopsy. It allows you to study the complete anatomical composition of the sample, chemical unmasking signs, microscopic composition of cells, immunological abnormalities, etc. Anatomical pathology, in turn, is divided into:

  • surgical pathology;
  • histopathology;
  • cell pathology;
  • dermatopathology;
  • forensic pathology.

Clinical pathology is a medical discipline in which, for the diagnosis of a disease, a thorough study of fluids (blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.) and body tissues is examined. She, in turn, can also be divided into:

  • chemical pathology or clinical chemistry;
  • immunopathology or immunology (examines the causes of immunity disorders);
  • hematopathology or hematology (examines blood disorders).

Molecular pathology is an interdisciplinary field that studies diseases at the molecular level. She can use research tools of anatomical and clinical pathology, genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry.


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